A convention is a call or play with a defined meaning, which may be artificial. This is the definition of this designation in the game of bridge per The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge published by the American Contract Bridge League.

The following is a quoted text from The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, Newly Revised, Sixth Edition, page 25, ISBN-10: 0943855446:

The proliferation of artificial bids of all kinds in the post-war years led to some objections (among the governing bodies and among the bridge players). The American Contract Bridge League, the French Bridge Federation, and the English Bridge Union, among others, restrict the use of artificial systems and conventions ... in normal tournament play. It is considered that the users of such systems gain an unfair advantage against opponents unfamiliar with the methods employed.

Defensive bids take on a different meaning against artificial systems, and the meanings of doubles, No Trump bids, and bids in the opponent's suit have to be carefully considered. A further point is that a defender can afford to pass over an artificial forcing bid holding a strong hand, knowing that he will get a further opportunity to bid.

Defense methods have been developed against such artificial opening bids and this list attempts to provide information about such methods. The reader and student of the game of bridge must realize in advance that the specific and definite meaning of such an opening bid must be understood in order to establish a method of defense.

Such defense methods against artificial opening bids provide the opposing side with the opportunity, the possibility to compete. However, the desire to compete must also be based upon certain parameters contained in the holding of the competing player. It is principally these defined parameters, which the player communicates to his partner, and upon which the partner can base any continuances.

Therefore, certain disciplined guidelines and parameters must be met when deciding to compete. The following methods provide such guidelines and parameters, to which the player must adhere in order to provide more accurate information.

Inadequate Agreements

The art and science of defending in the game of bridge has been inadequately addressed for the learning student. The provided instructions to the learning student have been viewed as unsatisfactory in regard to the almost absence of such defense methods. The act of teaching defense methods have been incommensurate and disproportionate to the teaching of conventional methods for opening and responding. The learning bridge student, without the proper armament provided by defense methods, is incapable of finding a defense against artificial opening bids.

Altered Crash Convention - Version Roberto Scaramuzzi
This variation of the Crash conventional method, also designated as Altered Crash, is attributed to Mr. Roberto Scaramuzzi, of Los Angeles, California, United States, (Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University). This information was uploaded to a chat board on February 1, 1995. This version of the Crash conventional method has been altered to defend against a strong, artificial 1 Club opening bid.

Bishop Convention
The Bishop conventional defense method was devised as an obstructive action in the form of overcalls following a strong Club opening bid such as Precision, the Polish Clubs, or Roman bidding systems.

Crash Convention - Modified Version
The origin of the Modified Crash conventional method is unknown. This version of the Crash conventional method was employed and popular in England for many years before it became published in the United States. The version is employed in combination with the TWERB convention method, which is an acronym for Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding.

Crash Convention - Three Suited Version
The idea behind the Three-Suited Version of the Crash conventional method adds the possibility that the overcaller, or intervenor, to show a three-suited hand for competing against a strong, artificial 1 Club opening.

CROTS Defense Method
The source for the information regarding this defense method is from Callahan's Call, a website located in Australia. This concept for a defense method represents a modification of Super Crash, which was authored by Mr. W. D. Bennion in an August 1986 issue of the Bridge World magazine. The concept itself was developed by Mr. Charles Galloway.

Hudson 1 No Trump Overcall - Hudson 1NT Overcall
The origin of this conventional defense method is accredited to Mr. Robert R. Hudson of Dunedin, New Zealand. Fundamentally it is a defense method devised to be employed after an opponent opens the auction with either a natural bid or an artificial bid on the one level.

IDAK and IDAC and Wonder Bids
The origin of this concept is based upon ideas of the family Crossley, namely Mr. Clarence F. Crossley Jr., born in the year 1924 of Henderson, Nevada, United States, and sons Mr. David M. Crossley, born in the year 1948 of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States, and Mr. Robert (Bob) E. Crossley (website), born in the year 1951 of Corte Madera, California, United States. The development of the concept is attributed by the family more to Mr. Robert (Bob) E. Crossley.

Mathe Against 1 Club Opening Bids
This conventional defense method was developed by Mr. Lewis L. Mathe, also known as simply Lew, of Canoga Park, California, United States. He was born in 1915 and died in 1986. He is also the originator of Mathe Asking Bids. The Mathe conventional bids are generally to be employed in the immediate seat following the strong, generally artificial 1 Club opening since the partner of the strong 1 Club bidder must respond with zero values.

Super Crash Convention
The first publication of the Super Crash conventional method appeared in the August 1986 issue of The Bridge World magazine, authored by Mr. W. D. Bannion. The developer is Mr. Charles Galloway. This variation of the original Crash conventional method is devised to show either a one-suited holding, a two-suited holding, or a three-suited holding after the opponents begin the auction with a strong, forcing 1 Club opening.

Truscott Defense Method to Strong, Artificial Bids
This is a defense method, devised by Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott, by which the defending side is able to show a one-suited or two-suited hand. The method also employs a Jump Overcall as natural and a simple overcall shows length in the bid suit and the suit that ranks just above it.

Whirlwind Convention
This concept was developed by Mr. Geoffrey S. Jade Barrett in preparation for the 1997 Junior World Teams conducted in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. This information was provided by Mr. Geoffrey S. Jade Barrett.



If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.